Влияние нежеланной беременности на развитие ребенка



Нежеланная беременность… Невеселая тема для раздумья и разговора. А подчас очень тяжелая и горькая. Тема эта тяжела всегда, независимо от того, какое решение принимается при наступлении такой беременности: прервать ее или сохранить. Сегодня наш разговор пойдет только о втором случае — когда такую беременность женщина сохраняет. И в первую очередь надо разобраться в том, как нежеланная беременность может влиять впоследствии на развитие ребенка. На этот вопрос постаралась ответить  детский психолог Екатерина Бузыкина.

Влияние нежеланной беременности на развитие ребенка

«В последние годы появились сообщения о том, что у нежеланных детей обнаруживаются, помимо психологических проблем, различные соматические (психосоматические) расстройства. Среди них пренатальная дистрофия при рождении, высокая частота респираторных заболеваний, бронхиты, пневмония, энурез, нейродермит, язвы желудка.  Анализ многих клинических наблюдений показывает, что пренатальная дистрофия, внутриутробная гипоксия и последующая асфиксия новорожденного, энцефалопатия, иммунодефицит, отставание в физическое и умственном развитии с подавлением эмоциональной сферы ребенка берут свое начало в пренатальном периоде. Возможно, психоэмоциональный стресс женщины, который был связан с ее психологическими особенностями, нежелательной беременностью и другими психотравмирующими обстоятельствами способствовал возникновению столь серьезных осложнений.

У женщин, вынашивающих нежеланную беременность чаще бывают сложности с грудным вскармливанием. У детей таких матерей обнаруживается невыраженность сосательного рефлекса, который, как известно, является врожденным, инстинктивный актом, развивающимся еще внутриутробно (сосание пальца). В данном случае, неспособность выкормить своего ребенка, следует рассматривать как еще одну реакцию отвержения ею беременности и ребенка, фактический отказ от своей женской, материнской сути.

 

В ходе различных исследований, был выявлен факт, что субъективные переживания женщин, вынашивающих нежеланную беременность существенно отличаются от эмоциональных переживаний у женщин, вынашивающих желанную беременность.

 При всем многообразии индивидуальных различий удается выявить общие черты и выделить два крайних варианта психологического статуса беременных женщин, вынашивающих нежеланного ребенка. В первом случае происходит своеобразное «игнорирование» симптомов беременности, слабая эмоциональная реакция и искажение представления о сроках беременности. Второй, как бы противоположенный вариант, характеризуется тем, что на всем протяжении беременности у женщин отмечается сверхчувствительность к телесным изменениям, эмоциональная напряженность, страх, депрессия.

В первом случае всю беременность женщины чувствуют себя достаточно хорошо. Заметно реже, чем в случаях желанной беременности у них встречаются явления раннего токсикоза. Такая пониженная чувствительность сохраняется и по отношению к шевелениям плода. Обращает на себя внимание, что в случае нежеланной беременности у женщины, как и во многих сходных наблюдениях, формируется пониженная чувствительность телесных проявлений беременности и соответствующая ей особое психологическое состояние.     

Влияние нежеланной беременности на развитие ребенка   

     Таким образом, в случаях вынашивания нежеланной беременности эмоциональные проявления женщин могут существенно отличаться друг от друга.  В одних случаях это устойчивый негативный, депрессивный фон настроения. В других — эмоциональная невключенность, безразличие и даже определенная эйфория.                                

     На основании данных исследования возникло предположение, что, по-видимому, существует стереотипная динамика психического состояния беременных, предшествующая эффективному («нормативному») материнству (которое можно было бы условно принять за норму), и особая динамика этих же функций, предшествующая отклоняющимся типам материнского отношения (и поведения).

           Формирование отклоняющегося материнства. 

Почему для некоторых женщин беременность завершается отказом от ребенка или другими формами отклоняющегося материнского поведения. Она объединяет в единый комплекс такие черты, как инфантилизм, повышенную потребность в любви, связанную с чувством обделенности вниманием и заботой в детстве, сексуальную неразборчивость, эгоцентризм. В фантазиях такие женщины сами — дети, поэтому у них нет желания беременеть. Если даже они этого и хотят, то им трудно окружить ребенка заботой и любовью, потому что им самим кажется, что они недостаточно получили эту любовь. У них могут проявляться сильные садистские черты, направленные на их сексуальных партнеров, и если они станут матерями, это сказывается на их привыкании к ребенку и на их агрессивных проявлениях к нему, особенно к мальчику.

Важным моментом становления беременной женщиной – матерью, являются ее взаимоотношения с собственной матерью. Ведущая потребность женщины с отклоняющемся материнским поведением — получить любовь и признание своей родной матери. Такая потребность приводит к эмоциональной зависимости от матери и во многом блокирует личностный рост женщины, не позволяя ей самой в будущем стать матерью. Из этого следует, что для формирования нормального материнского поведения необходима идентификация с собственной матерью.»

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  10. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

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  81. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

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