Профилактика кариеса молочных зубов



На сегодняшний день кариес является самым распространенным заболеванием зубов у человека. Несмотря на успехи в лечении этой болезни, распространение и интенсивность его у детей по-прежнему очень высока. По данным ВОЗ, у половины двухлетних малышей один или несколько молочных зубов уже поражены кариесом, а в десятилетнем возрасте 8 из 10 детей нуждаются в помощи стоматолога. Для того, чтобы ребенок никогда не узнал, что такое кариес и зубная боль, заботливые родители должны уделить значительное внимание профилактике кариеса. О том, как правильно заботиться о детских зубках расскажет детский зубной врач Таллиннской клиники Dental Beauty — Мария Евхута

 «Профилактику кариеса условно можно разделить на две составляющие. Первая составляющая — это профилактика, проводимая в кабинете у врача, и вторая —  профилактика, проводимая дома ежедневно. Несомненно, значение ежедневной профилактики кариеса нельзя переоценить, так что сегодня поговорим более подробно именно о ней.

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Начинать заботиться о предотвращении кариеса у ребенка мама может начинать уже будучи беременной. Во время беременности происходит минерализация всех 20 молочных зубов, и также первых постоянных жевательных зубов. Минерализация — это  отложение минеральных солей (кальция, фосфора и др.), составляющих основу твердых тканей зуба, и в первую очередь эмали. Период минерализации крайне важен для зубов, поэтому мама должна правильно и полноценно питаться, обязательно принимать витамины, стараться не болеть, не принимать лекарства без консультации врача. Любые нарушения в период беременности (ранние и поздние токсикозы и т. д.) могут повлиять на формирующиеся молочные зубы, которые становятся кариесвосприимчивыми.

 После рождения ребенка родителям необходимо помнить одну очень важную вещь. Кариес – это заразная болезнь! Заражается ребенок им от мамы с папой. Возбудителем кариеса является бактерия Streptococcus mutans, и  чаще всего эта бактерия перекочевывают из родительского рта вместе с облизанной ложкой или соской. Упавшую соску правильнее сполоснуть водой или протереть специальными салфетками, а не облизывать, тогда ротовая полость ребенка дольше останется свободной от кариеса.

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 Чтобы избежать бутылочного кариеса, необходимо следить за тем, чтобы ребенок не засыпал с бутылочкой со смесью (соком, сладким чаем, йогуртом и тд) во рту. Также неконтролируемое долгое сосание груди может влиять на возникновение кариеса, потому что и в грудном молоке содержится сахар – лактоза. Вредная для зубов бактерия Streptococcus mutans размножается на зубной эмали только при наличии сахара, которым она питается. Перерабатывая сахар, бактерии выделяют кислоту, разрушающую зубную эмаль, и возникает дырка.

 Также для предотвращения кариеса нужно правильно организовать питание подросшего ребенка. В данном случае профилактика кариеса молочных зубов предполагает отказ от перекусов между основными приемами пищи, количество которых должно составлять 4-5 раз в день, умеренное и своевременное употребление пищи с высоким содержанием углеводов (сладкое, выпечка, соки, лимонады и др.). Понятно, что без сладкого  ребенка вырастить просто нереально, но свести употребления его к минимуму вполне возможно. Если малыш хочет вкусненького, дайте его сразу после основного приема пищи. Еще один вариант – это один «сладкий» день в неделю, когда ребенок может есть сладкое когда угодно и в любых количествах. Но в этом случае он должен знать, что в другие дни вкусненького он не получит. А чтобы лишний раз не соблазнять ребенка сладким, достаточно просто реже и в меньших количествах его приобретать. В случае жажды между основными приемами пищи рекомендуется пить только чистую воду.

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 Самым надежным средством против кариеса у детей является хорошая гигиена рта. Чистить зубы нужно начинать с момента их прорезывания, а не когда вырастут все 20. На первых порах можно использовать щетку — силиконовый напальчник, а после года нужно приобрести мини-копию взрослой щетки. Необходимо помнить, что щетка должны быть мягкой (SOFT), и менять ее необходимо раз в 2 месяца. Не стоит забывать и о дополнительных средствах гигиены полости рта, к которым относятся: зубные нити или флоссы, ополаскиватели, жевательные резинки на основе ксилитола, как средство удаления остатков пищи после еды и подавления размножения кариесогенных бактерий. Очень важно воспитать у ребенка навык ежедневно чистить зубы, чтобы он как можно раньше осознал и принял на себя ответственность за здоровье своих зубов.

Сохранив здоровье молочных зубов, вы позволите постоянным зубам расти правильно, вовремя сформироваться и прорезаться.

Автор статьи — Др. Мария Евхута

Зубная клиника Dental Beauty
Торнимяэ 7, Таллинн

 

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