Детское зрение. Когда проверяют в первый раз и как часто это следует делать?



Почти у каждого родителя после рождения ребенка, особенно первенца, появлялись такие вопросы как: когда нужно начинать водить к зубному, когда к окулисту, когда он впервые пойдёт, скоро ли заговорит и т.д. К зубному – понятно, когда появятся зубки. Когда пойдёт и заговорит – это зависит от самого ребёнка. А вот, когда нужно впервые проверять зрение действительно оказалась интересной темой.

Для детей иметь хорошее зрение очень важно. Именно через зрение ребёнок знакомится с окружающим миром, приобретает основные знания и навыки. Органы зрения у детей формируются первые 5 лет жизни. Как ни странно впервые дефекты зрения можно определить в самый первый день жизни. Далее врачи рекомендуют регулярный осмотр у офтальмолога. Даже, если у ребёнка нет со зрением никаких нарушений, визиты к специалистам позволят узнать о детском зрении и задать вопросы.

Детское зрение. Когда проверяют в первый раз и как часто это следует делать?

Первый осмотр проводится, как правило, уже в родильном доме. Особенно тщательно проверяют глазки недоношенным детям и малышам с небольшим весом (менее 2 кг). Для недельного ребенка считается нормой зрение 0,002–0,02 (до 2 %). В этом возрасте зрительная система еще не сформирована полностью, поэтому малыш может только распознавать свет и тень, но не может четко видеть предметы и концентрироваться на одной точке. Норма зрения у детей диагностируется внешним осмотром. Глазные щели должны быть узкими и одинаковой формы, при включении света видна реакция зрачка и смыкание век. С помощью офтальмоскопа исследуется глазное дно для исключения врожденной катаракты. Следующее обследование у офтальмолога малыш проходит в 1 месяц, если для этого есть показания. Если таковых нет, то визит к специалисту можно отложить до 3 месяцев.» Как написано на сайте, в 3 месяца при осмотре врач может обнаружить небольшое косоглазие. Не стоит сразу пугаться! В большинстве случаев оно считается нормой и обычно скоро исчезает.

 И так, два самых часто задаваемых вопросов мамочек: когда впервые нужно проверять зрение и как же часто нужно водить ребёнка на осмотр?

Отвечаем: Зрение проверяется в самый первый день жизни, если никаких проблем не обнаружено, следующий визит к врачу в 3 месяца. Далее в 6 месяцев, если всё в порядке, то следующий визит уже в 1 год. В этом возрасте можно определить наличие различных отклонений, например близорукость и дальнозоркость. Следующий осмотр стоит делать через год, перед детским садом. Ну, а потом, когда ваш малыш уже будет разговаривать, например в 3 года. Тогда можно уже проверять зрения с помощью традиционной таблицы Сивцева. К сожалению, в Таллинне больницы, где работают детские врачи офтальмологи, не всегда принимают детей, которые ещё не умеют говорить. Во многих больницах приём к врачу начинается с пяти лет.

Если ребёнок ещё совсем маленький и не может пожаловаться на проблемы со зрением, он всё равно своими действиями подскажет родителям, что что-то не так.

Например:

  • Слишком близко подносит к лицу книгу или игрушку, наклоняет голову при попытке рассмотреть что-то
  • Прищуривает глаза или закрывает один глаз, когда нужно рассмотреть мелкие детали изображения
  • Стал ближе подсаживаться к телевизору, принимает позу «наклон вперед» при игре на компьютере
  • Глаза часто выглядят покрасневшими, ребенок может жаловаться на головную боль, быстро устает при занятиях, требующих зрительных нагрузок

Огромной проблемой в наше время считаются большие очереди на приём к врачу, причём к любому врачу. Однако, во многих больницах есть частные врачи, которые принимают буквально сразу. Единственный минус – нужно заплатить немалые деньги.

Это список больниц, где принимают как частные детские окулисты, так и обычные. 

Ida-Tallinna Keskhaigla http://bit.ly/1Bteyhc

Mustamäe silmakeskus http://bit.ly/17yhTxR

ST Tallinna Lastehaigla http://bit.ly/17XzM91

Silmake http://bit.ly/1AKjyKL

Silmalaser http://bit.ly/1zHMn86

По словам детских врачей окулистов, у большинства детей появляются проблемы со зрением, когда они начинают ходить в школу. Дети начинают меньше спать, много играть в компьютерные игры, читать учебники при неправильном свете и т.д. Чтобы избежать проблем со зрением, в этот период родители должны особенно следить за образом жизни своего ребёночка. Нужно правильно организовать рабочий стол, соблюдать режим дня, правильно питаться, каждый день делать гимнастику для глаз и сократить время на компьютер и просмотр телевизора.

И помните, дорогие мамочки и папочки, большая часть ответственности за здоровье вашего ребёнка лежит на вас!

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