Вакцинация детей — «за» или «против»?



Очень часто родители спрашивают: стоит ли делать детям профилактические прививки? Не лучше ли предоставить малышу переболеть детскими инфекционными болезнями, такими, как корь, коклюш и другие, пока он еще мал? Ведь многие знают, что у взрослых эти болезни протекают гораздо тяжелее. Не окажет ли прививка отрицательного воздействия на организм ребенка? Ведь и сроки иммунитета, т.е. невосприимчивости к болезни после различных прививок не так уж и длительны (в среднем 2-5 лет). Итак, нужны ли профилактические прививки? 

вакцинация детей в таллинне

Чтобы прояснить многие вопросы, мы обратились к  детскому педиатру Таллиннской детской больницы Михаилу Тищенко.

Для чего нужна вакцинация? В чем ее польза?

Вакцинация нужна для стимулирования иммунной системы организма к выработке защиты от инфекционных заболеваний. Проще говоря, для защиты от болезней, многие из которых хоть и не самые опасные, но из-за высокой заразности и скорости распространения в обществе повинны в гибели многих детей и взрослых на протяжении веков.

По нашему календарю прививок вакцинация начинается буквально с первых дней жизни малыша. Почему так рано? И вообще, почему так много прививок приходится на первый год жизни ребенка?

Вакцинация начинается в первые часы жизни ребёнка — в первые двенадцать часов делают первую дозу прививки от гепатита Б, в первые 5 дней делают прививку от туберкулёза. Столь раннее начало вакцинации необходимо для формирования максимальной защиты от этих опасных болезней. В первый год прививок больше всего из-за важности как можно быстрее защитить ребёнка, ну и потому что одной дозы прививки не хватает для выработки стойкого иммунитета. Как правило делается три дозы.

Действительно ли вакцинация защищает от опасных болезней, таких как дифтерия, полиомиелит, столбняк? Может ли ребенок заболеть недугом, от которого привит?

Вакцинация безусловно защищает, иначе бы в прививках не было бы смысла, но к сожалению у действия прививок есть свои сроки. Говоря точнее, иммунитет, вызванный прививкой медленно, но верно ослабевает, что ,увы, открывает возможность для заражения. Так ,например, люди заболевают коклюшем, столбняком, туберкулёзом. Но главное — это возможность создания эффективной защиты в детском возрасте, когда человек наиболее уязвим. А поскольку прививки из государственного календаря «действуют» минимум 10 лет, то большинство привитых детей оказываются надежно защищены до наступления совершеннолетия.

Каким детям противопоказаны прививки?

Прививки как и все прочие медицинские препараты имеют свои противопоказания, которые делятся на постоянные и временные. К постоянным относятся: тяжёлые аллергические реакции на сами прививки или их компоненты: например, анафилаксия. Людям с иммунодефицитом (ВИЧ, врождённая иммунная недостаточность и т. д.) противопоказаны прививки на основе хоть и ослабленных, но живых возбудителей: БЦЖ, корь, краснуха, свинка, ротавирус.

К непостоянным относятся заболевание c высокой температурой или без, но с заметных ухудшением общего состояния, заболевания нервной системы до достижения контроля над ними. Например, если у ребёнка тяжёлая форма эпилепсии, то прививки можно будет делать как только лекарства полностью ликвидируют судороги.

Многих родителей пугают последствия вакцинации – повышение температуры, аллергии, простудные явления? Что это, осложнения после прививки?

Да, у прививок случаются осложнения, но к счастью подавляющее большинство всё-таки лёгкие: непродолжительный небольшой подъём температуры или боль с отёком в месте укола. Особенно часто это происходит после прививки против сезонного гриппа. Кроме того встречаются и более тяжёлые. Например, анафилактические реакции, которые без своевременной помощи могут оказаться смертельными. Именно поэтому ребёнок получивший прививку некоторое время должен быть под наблюдением медиков, ведь анафилактические реакции проявляются как правило в первые минуты после укола.

Насколько часто возникают не реакции, а именно осложнения после вакцинации?

В принципе любая реакция на прививку является по сути осложнением, и они встречаются с разной частотой в зависимости от типа прививки. Самые проблемные – это прививки от гриппа, которые в календарь не входят. Но даже они подавляющим большинством людей переносятся без последствий.

Бытует мнение, что вакцинация снижает иммунитет у детей, они начинают чаще и дольше болеть, к примеру, обычный насморк может закончиться бронхитом и т.д. Так ли это?

Нет, не так. Прививки наоборот призваны стимулировать иммунитет, а точнее выработку антител к возбудителем болезней. Кроме того прививки вовсе не «отвлекают» иммунитет от других возбудителей. Так что опасаться того, что получив прививку, ребёнок станет более болезненным не стоит.

Правда ли , что если мы ставим прививку ребенку, мы не получаем гарантии, что он не заразится и не заболеет?

К сожалению правда, но риск заболеть у него, как правило, вырастет уже во взрослом возрасте, но и то в случае, если повторные прививки не будут сделаны. Это относится ,например, к дифтерии и столбняку, которые необходимо повторять каждые 10 лет.

Как вы относитесь к высказыванию, что уменьшение количества заболеваний связано с повышением общего уровня жизни и медицины и никак не связано с прививками.

Я согласен с этим утверждением лишь отчасти, поскольку повышение уровня личной гигиены и уровня жизни в целом конечно способствует снижению уровня заболеваемости. Но инфекционные болезни переносятся от человека к человеку в любом случае, а сегодня в век глобализации, когда огромные потоки людей постоянно перемешиваются, создаются дополнительные риски. Так например, появления лихорадки Эбола можно ждать где угодно. Даже у нас. Кроме того есть простая статистика. Например, в Германии после введения прививки от Гемофильной инфекции, заболеваемость менингитом сократилась в 200 раз. Была побеждена оспа — болезнь унесшая в Европе тысячи жизней. Краснуха и корь, о которых мы читаем в книге Пеппи Длинный Чулок, современным родителям почти незнакомы. Учитывая эти факты, вакцинацию можно отнести к одному из самых важных достижений человечества

Много ли сейчас в Эстонии отказов от прививок?

К счастью их не так много, что позволяет поддерживать необходимый процент привитых людей (свыше 90%) и тем самым не допускать эпидемий.

Должны ли врачи спрашивать разрешение родителей перед тем, как делать прививку?

Врачи должны спрашивать согласие родителей перед каждой новой прививкой. Если родители решают отказаться от конкретной прививки или отказаться от вакцинации вообще, то для этого необходимо заполнить специальный бланк

Как же можно подготовиться к прививке?

В принципе готовиться особо не нужно. Главное это стараться к моменту прививки быть здоровым. Если у ребёнка есть какие-то проблемы со здоровьем, то перед вакцинацией их необходимо обсудить с врачом. Так что если ваш семейный врач не владеет полной информацией о здоровье ребёнка, то не забудьте рассказать о ней и продумайте все заранее, чтоб не упустить что-то важное. Особенное внимание следует уделить аллергиям и реакции на уже сделанные прививки.

Сегодня у родителей есть выбор: делать прививку или нет. Можете дать несколько рекомендаций «сомневающимся» родителям, чтобы им было легче определиться?

Прививки — это проверенный наукой простой способ избежать заболеваний, многие из которых приводят к гибельным последствиям. Делая прививки своему ребёнку, вы не только защищаете его самого, но и даёте защиту тем, кто по тем или иным причинам не может быть привит. Ведь привитый человек не болея сам, не является переносчиком инфекции другим людям.  Чем больше детей привито, тем меньше у инфекций возможности распространения. Делая прививки, вы поступаете ответственно!

Не бойтесь задавать вопросы. Работа медиков в том числе и в том, чтобы на них отвечать. Ищите ответы и сами, пользуясь авторитетными источниками с известными авторами, а не сомнительными сайтами разного рода «непризнанных гениев» и «разоблачителей».

В Эстонии доступную информацию предоставляет Terviseamet в том числе и на русском языке. Terviseamet.ee

 

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